Campylobacter organisms are spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. It is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the United States. Most human illness is caused by one species, Campylobacter jejuni. The most frequently reported cases of Campylobacter are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or from cross-contamination of other foods by these items. Reports of other outbreaks have been linked to unpasteurized milk or contaminated water. Strains are sensitive to oxygen and are considered fragile, making it difficult to cultivate and maintain. Confirmation of Campylobacter requires microscopic, biochemical, and immunological techniques that are tedious and labour intensive.